From Test-Scratch-Wiki

Scratch Cat,orijinal Scratch maskotudur.
Scratch logosu.

Scratch ücretsiz bir eğitim amaçlı programlama dilidir. 11 milyon kayıtlı kullanıcı ve 14 milyon paylaşılmış proje ile [1] Lifelong Kindergarten Group tarafından Massachusetts Teknoloji Enstitüsü (MIT)'de geliştirilmiştir. Şimdiki versiyon, 2.0,buradan indirilebilir. (önceki versiyon, 1.4, buradan indirilebilir.) veya buradan çevrimiçi editöre giriş yapılabilir. Scratch 8-16 yaşları ve 3.sınıftan yüksekokula kadar olanlar için araçlar bulundurur.

Scratch eğlence,eğitim ve kolayca öğrenme için tasarlanmıştır. Scratch interaktif hikayeler oyunlar, sanat, simülasyonlar ve daha fazlası için araçları vardır ve blok bazlı programcılığı kullanır. Scratch'in kendi yapılmış boya editörü ve ses editörü vardır.

Kullanıcılar Scratch'te programlarken blokları blok paletine sürükler ve diğer bloklar puzzle gibi birleşir.Bu çoklu bloklara kod dizini denir. Programcılığın bu metoduna (bloklarla kod yazmak) "sürükle-bırak programlama" denir.


Scratch Websitesi'nin URL'si https://scratch.mit.edu dir.

Kullanımı

Scratch Dünya'nın her tarafındaki okullarda çocuklara basit bilgisayar programcılığını tanıtmak için kullanılmaktadır.Aynı zamanda okul dışında da kullanılmaktadır. Çocuklar ve yetişkinler Scratch ile kodlama yetisi kazanırlar, ve çoğunlukla diğer kodlama dillerini kullanabilirler. Scratch'te,proje yaratılabilir, remixlenebilir,ve diğerleriyle beraber Scratch projeleri yapmak için birleşilebilir .

Çevre

Main article: Scratch User Interface

In designing the language, the creators' main priority was to make the language and development environment intuitive and easily learned by children who had no previous programming experience. There is a strong contrast between the powerful multimedia functions and multi-threaded programming style and the rather limited scope of the Scratch programming language.

Scratch 2.0's development environment at startup.
The user interface for the Scratch development environment divides the screen into several panes: on the in the middle is the blocks palette, on the right the scripts area, and on the left the stage and sprite list. The blocks palette has code fragments (called "blocks") that can be dragged onto the scripts area to make programs. To keep the palette from displaying a great quantity of blocks and for ease if use, it is organized into 10 groups of blocks: motion, looks, sound, pen, control, events, sensing, operators, variables, and more blocks.

Origin of the Word

"Scratch" was used as the title for The Lifelong Kindergarten Group's programming language, as it is to do with "scratching" referring to music.

Scratching is a DJ or turntablist technique used to produce distinctive sounds by moving a vinyl record back and forth on a turntable while optionally manipulating the crossfader on a DJ mixer.[2]

– Wikipedia

Likewise, within Scratch, you take different bits of code (blocks), put them together, and have made something new.

We take the name "Scratch," from the way that hip-hop disk jockeys scratch with music. They take pieces of music and then combine them together in unexpected and creative ways.

– Mitchell Resnick, Lifelong Kindergarten Group at MIT

Variants of the Word

The word "Scratch" has spawned other phrases that have become popular amongst users of Scratch:

  • Scratcher — A user of Scratch
  • Scratching — A verb which means to use Scratch
  • Scratched — A project that is an attempted replica of another game. e.g. "Pac-man Scratched"
  • Scratch Time — The timezone that the forums are set in (EST/EDT)
  • Scratch Team — The moderators and developers of the website.
  • Scratch On! — A phrase coined by the Scratch Team, and used by them (although has been adapted by other Scratchers as well) to encourage users, meaning "carry on using Scratch"

Sloganı

Scratch'in sloganı"İlham Al,Programla,Paylaş"tır. This follows the basic principle of creating a Scratch Project. En başta,bir fikir düşünürsün (ilham Al),Daha sonra,bu fikrini Scratch'te programlarsın(program) ve son olarak tüm dünyayla paylaşılabilir (paylaş). Since the release of Scratch 2.0, the mottlao has been less apparent throughout the website; the front page no longer has the motto but instead a description of what Scratch is.

Versiyonlar

Main article: Scratch Versions


Scratch'in şimdiki versiyonu, 2.0,çevrimiçi editör orijinal olarak 9 Mayıs 2013'te ve çevrimdışı editör 26 Ağustos 2013'te sürüldü. Its predecessor is Scratch 1.4, which was released on July 2, 2009. The previous, older versions are Scratch 1.3, Scratch 1.2, Scratch 1.1, and Scratch 1.0. Each version had significant changes, especially the jump from 1.4 to 2.0. Not only did the program update with version 2.0, but the entire website evolved.

Features

  • Scratch is turing complete.
  • It is primarily event-driven.
  • Whether or not it is OOP is debated in the community.
  • Scratch has variables and lists for data storage, and arrays can be replicated.
  • Scratch is not atomic in repetition, though that can be simulated with Single Frame programming.
  • Scratch 2.0 does support procedures, and recursion.
  • Scratch has many simplified casting rules. Data is not, however, first-class — you cannot have first-class lists, sprites, or procedures (lambda).

OS Permissions

Scratch has limited hardware/OS access, and is a very safe program. The following can be accessed by Scratch:

  • Ambient volume
  • Mouse position relative to the Scratch frame
  • Key presses, only if Scratch is in focus
  • In Scratch 2.0, your movements are provided as sensor values, using a webcam for image input.
  • The filesystem can be accessed while in development, but not while running.
  • Scratch can communicate externally to a Lego WeDo set or PicoBoard plugged into your computer.

Scratch Modifications offer more OS permissions.

ScratchJr

Main article: Scratch Jr

Scratch Jr is a programming language based on Scratch but yet even simpler, so naturally the app is designed for kids ages 5 to 7. The program, unlike Scratch, was developed as a mobile app for tablets. The development team for ScratchJr somewhat differs from the Scratch Team, though a couple of members contribute to both programs.

Notable Things

Scratch ve Cartoon Network Scratchers'ların We Bare Bears(Kafadar Ayılar) projelerini yapmalarına teşvik etmek için çalıştı .Buradan Scratch'in Cartoon Network sitesindeki yerine bakabilirsin.


Scratch was renamed Neigh temporarily due to an April Fools Joke played by Scratch Team on 2012 as a 2.0 joke. There were also a good number of My little pony references.Buradan daha fazlasını öğrenebilirsiniz.


Scratch was full of projects with the well known Scratch Cat, because of ScratchCation in 2016. Scratch Team showed us the note Scratch Cat left on Scratch, along with a notification. Around the same time, The Last SDS came around. All of Scratch knew about it, making it something to reference.

Ayrıca Bakınız

Kaynakça

  1. http://scratch.mit.edu/statistics/
  2. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Scratching